Xu R, Gil D, Dibas M, et al.
期刊名称：Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
瞳孔 光照 水平
目的：旨在检查小瞳孔和光照水平对距离矫正老花眼阅读表现的影响。旨在确定小瞳孔是否能使老花眼在近光照甚至低光照条件下进行阅读。方法：为了建立较低范围的文字亮度，我们量化了9个不同人为照明的室内环境中文字的空间平均亮度，并分析文字对电子和印刷显示的空间平均亮度的影响。在通过人造瞳孔（直径1-4.5毫米），天然瞳孔或多焦点隐形眼镜观察时，检测20名老年人（40-60岁）的远读和近读速度。空间平均文字亮度水平从0.14到140 cd / m2（包括测量环境文字亮度的范围）变化。结果：将黑色文本添加到白色计算机显示屏或纸张可将亮度降低约15％至31％，遇到的最低环境文字亮度约为2〜3 cd / m2。对于远读和近读表现，平均文字光照水平≥2cd / m2下，2到3 mm的小瞳孔的整体阅读敏锐度最高。 2到3毫米人造瞳孔和多焦点隐形眼镜都能够在远距离和近距离处获得0.5个logMAR的最大或接近最大读取速度，但是对于自然瞳孔，阅读速度在近处显着降低。结论：虽然低亮度下光噪降低了小瞳孔的视觉效果，但2到3毫米人造瞳孔的优点足以使>80%的距离矫正老花眼能够在近处轻松的阅读，甚至在室内环境最低文字亮度下。
Purpose:To examine the impact of small pupils and light levels on reading performance of distance-corrected presbyopes. To determine whether small pupils would enable presbyopes to read at near even at low light levels.Methods:To establish the lower range of text luminances, we quantified the space-averaged luminance of text in nine different artificially lit interior environments, and examined the impact of the text characters on space-averaged luminance of electronic and printed displays. Distance and near reading speeds of 20 presbyopes (ages 40-60 years) were measured while viewing through artificial pupils (diameters 1-4.5 mm), natural pupils, or with a multifocal contact lens. Space-averaged text luminance levels varied from 0.14 to 140 cd/m2 (including the range of measured environmental text luminances).Results:Adding black text to a white computer display or paper reduces luminance by approximately 15% to 31%, and the lowest encountered environmental text luminance was approximately 2 to 3 cd/m2. For both distance and near reading performance, the 2- to 3-mm small pupil yielded the best overall reading acuity for space-averaged text light levels ≥ 2 cd/m2. The 2- to 3-mm artificial pupils and the multifocal contact lenses both enabled maximum or near-maximum reading speeds for 0.5 logMAR characters at distance and near, but with natural pupils, reading speeds were significantly reduced at near.Conclusions:Although photon noise at low luminance reduces the visual benefits of small pupils, the benefits of 2- to 3-mm artificial pupils are sufficient to enable >80% of distance-corrected presbyopes to read proficiently at near, even at the lowest text luminances found in interior environments.