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晶体生长过程

Bassnett, S., iki , H.

期刊名称:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research

卷期:2017年第60卷

关键词:
晶体 过程

摘要

摘要:调节器官大小以确保其适合生物体的因素尚不清楚。一个简单的器官,晶状体是用来解决这个问题的有用的模型。在许多系统中,器官生长过程能耐受(重量或体积)相当大的变化。但在晶状体中几乎肯定不是这样,晶状体除了舒适的容纳在眼球内之外,还必须具有正确的大小和形状以将光线准确的聚焦到视网膜上。此外,晶状体不能独立的完成其光学功能。其在整个生命中持续的生长必须与光学系统中其他组织的生长协调。在这里,对从十九世纪后期的开创性临床调查到最近收集的细胞和分子研究中的晶状体成长过程进行了详细的回顾。胚胎发育期间,晶状体由表面外胚层内陷形成。因此,祖细胞群位于其表面,分化的细胞被限制在内部。因此,调节细胞命运的相互作用发生在晶状体的椭圆形结构中。在这种情况下,数学模型是检查这种生长过程的特别适合的工具。除了识别关键的生长决定因素外,这些模型还构成了细胞生物学和光学数据整合的框架,有助于阐明晶状体基因表达与视网膜平面图像质量之间的关系。

The factors that regulate the size of organs to ensure that they fit within an organism are not well understood. A simple organ, the ocular lens serves as a useful model with which to tackle this problem. In many systems, considerable variance in the organ growth process is tolerable. This is almost certainly not the case in the lens, which in addition to fitting comfortably within the eyeball, must also be of the correct size and shape to focus light sharply onto the retina. Furthermore, the lens does not perform its optical function in isolation. Its growth, which continues throughout life, must therefore be coordinated with that of other tissues in the optical train. Here, we review the lens growth process in detail, from pioneering clinical investigations in the late nineteenth century to insights gleaned more recently in the course of cell and molecular studies. During embryonic development, the lens forms from an invagination of surface ectoderm. Consequently, the progenitor cell population is located at its surface and differentiated cells are confined to the interior. The interactions that regulate cell fate thus occur within the obligate ellipsoidal geometry of the lens. In this context, mathematical models are particularly appropriate tools with which to examine the growth process. In addition to identifying key growth determinants, such models constitute a framework for integrating cell biological and optical data, helping clarify the relationship between gene expression in the lens and image quality at the retinal plane.


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