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角膜结构和透明度

Meek KM, Knupp C

期刊名称:Prog Retin Eye Res 视网膜与眼科研究进展

卷期:第34卷(2015年)6期

摘要

        角膜基质在眼睛内起着几个关键作用。对于光,它是主要的折射透镜,从而将可见光近乎完美的传输形式与精确形状相结合,起到聚焦入射光的作用。此外,机械性方面它必须是非常坚固的,以保护眼睛的内部物质。这些功能由其结构在所有层次上进行掌控。关于角膜结构和透明度的基本原理为人们所知已经有一段时间,但最近几年发展起来的X射线散射等方法揭示了这种结构的细节较比之前人们所知的结构更为复杂,其胶原片层排列的复杂构造形成了组织的形状和机械性能。现代技术和理论建模方法开始从分子水平上精确地解释胶原纤维是如何排列在基质片层中以及蛋白多糖如何保持这种超微结构。在这篇评论中我们描述了关于三维基质结构在微观层面的知识现状,以及关于导致光学透明性的纳米级水平上的控制机制。

The corneal stroma plays several pivotal roles within the eye. Optically, it is the main refracting lens and thus has to combine almost perfect transmission of visible light with precise shape, in order to focus incoming light. Furthermore, mechanically it has to be extremely tough to protect the inner contents of the eye. These functions are governed by its structure at all hierarchical levels. The basic principles of corneal structure and transparency have been known for some time, but in recent years X-ray scattering and other methods have revealed that the details of this structure are far more complex than previously thought and that the intricacy of the arrangement of the collagenous lamellae provides the shape and the mechanical properties of the tissue. At the molecular level, modern technologies and theoretical modelling have started to explain exactly how the collagen fibrils are arranged within the stromal lamellae and how proteoglycans maintain this ultrastructure. In this review we describe the current state of knowledge about the three-dimensional stromal architecture at the microscopic level, and about the control mechanisms at the nanoscopic level that lead to optical transparency.

 

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